A paper by Peter Fitting which asserts this novel to be one of the most important works of 1960s science fiction. Fitting considers some of the factors which are employed in assessing a work's literary worth before illustrating how Dick undermines these.
An essay by Monika Müller, University of Cologne, examining issues of race, gender and identity - both individual and social - in this novel, as well as the same author's Dred, and George Eliot's Daniel Deronda.
An article by Robert Castle discussing DeLillo's novel in relation to the Clinton administration and news media. It features analysis of a variety of excerpts and comparisons to several films, notably Wag the Dog and Dr. Strangelove.
An academic article by Jennifer Pincott exploring the role of technology and science, or 'techno-science', in Underworld, and how this impacts on the novel's characters. There are frequent references to the ideas of various theorists, especially Marcuse, Baudrillard, Deleuze and Heidegger.
A paper by Jennifer Lawn arguing that this novel challenges received ideas of the roles of author, narrator and character in fiction. With the analysis of several excerpts, it explores focalization and the representation of consciousness.
A paper by Reuven Tsur, a Professor Emeritus at Tel Aviv University, presenting a detailed close reading of this poem, involving an exploration and application of the aesthetic models of Aristotle, Addison, Lessing, Coleridge and others.