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James Baldwin

Another Country

An essay by Amy Reddinger, an Assistant Professor at the University of Wisconsin, examining Baldwin's representation of public and domestic space, focusing on the character Rufus Scott, and referencing theories of Michel de Certeau.

Giovanni's Room

An essay by Luminita M. Dragulescu of West Virginia University exploring the roles homosexuality and commodification play in Baldwin's novel.

J.G. Ballard

The Atrocity Exhibition

An article by Nick Perry and Roy Wilkie of the University of Strathclyde examining in part the structure of Ballard's book and some of the reasons for his decisions regarding narrative.

Rushing to Paradise

An essay by Lucy McAllister of the University of Otago focusing mainly on the novel's central character and how factors of the narrative relate to each other.

Vermilion Sands

An article by William M. Schuyler, Jr. examining the stories in this collection from a psychoanalytic standpoint with particular reference to Jungian theories.


An academic article by Nicholas Ruddick examining the novel and critical reactions to it, most notably an essay by cultural theorist and philosopher Jean Baudrillard.
Two essays both discussing Crash, mainly in the context of Baudrillard's concept of simulacra and its presence in Science Fiction.
An essay by Panayiota Chrysochou of the University of Edinburgh examining the depiction of bodily trauma in Ballard's novel and its semiotic implications, with reference to Baudrillard, Derrida, and others.
An essay by Paul Youngquist of Penn State University looking at the role of photography in the narrative, with discussion of several excerpts.

Honoré de Balzac

Lost Illusions

An essay by Sarah Rose Cole of Columbia University which considers Balzac's novel as characterizing the emergence of a recognizably French bildungsroman narrative as well as investigating its influence on Thackeray's Pendennis.

John Banville

The Sea

An essay by Joanne Watkiss examining the post-modern implications of this Booker prize-winning novel as well as Derridean notions of space.
An essay by Elizabeth A. Weston comparing the narrative strategies John Banville and Virginia Woolf employ in order to express grief and loss in The Sea and Jacob's Room respectively.

Anna Letitia Barbauld

Washing Day

An essay by Elizabeth Kraft of University of Georgia which assess several readings of this poem as well as looking at its subject matter and use of imagery.
A general analysis of 'Washing Day' by Candyce Klin of Cedar Crest College.

Julian Barnes

A History of the World in 10 1/2 Chapters

An essay by Brian Finney, a professor at California State University, analysing various aspects of Barnes ironic book. Topics discussed include narrative voice and structure; Levi-strauss's concept of bricolage, as well as Barnes and Barthes similar outlook to the study of history.

Arthur and George

An essay by Soo Kim which utilizes the theories of the French philosopher Emmanuel Levinas to discuss this novel's relationship to both postmodern narrative and detective fiction.

The Lemon Table

An in-depth review by Ruth Franklin of this short story collection for The New Republic.

John Barth

The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor

An essay by Yusur Al-Madani of the University of Kuwait which explores the deconstruction of plot and the effects of a multiplicity of narrative voices within Barth's novel.

Georges Bataille

The Story of the Eye

An essay by A.R. Roughley on the subject of surveillance and its relationship to narration in this novel, with reference to Barthes, Derrida, Hegel and Kristeva.
In this essay Elizabeth Mosimann questions notions of the rational and considers some of the transgressive aspects of Bataille's text.

Charles Baudelaire

Une Charogne

A paper by Reuven Tsur, a Professor Emeritus at Tel Aviv University, presenting a detailed close reading of this poem, involving an exploration and application of the aesthetic models of Aristotle, Addison, Lessing, Coleridge and others.


A close reading of this sonnet by Reuven Tsur, analyzing the effects of organising principles, such as Baudelaire's use of contrasts, symmetries and patterns, with reference to the ideas of literary critic Maud Bodkin and comparisons with Coleridge.


In this paper Reuven Tsur considers this poem as being "on the verge of the cheap cliche and the masterpiece", a claim substantiated through a close reading.

James Beattie

The Judgement of Paris

An essay by Virginia Sampson of Durham University which investigates the idea of philosophical poetry as well as featuring some close readings of Beattie's poem.

Simi Bedford

Yoruba Girl Dancing

An essay by Martin Japtok of West Virginia State College analysing this novel alongside Merle Hodge's Crick Crack, Monkey. Amongst other things it looks at the bildungsroman narrative as an effective means of studying the impact of empire.

Saul Bellow

The Dean's December

An essay by G. Neelakantan of the Indian Institute of Technology analyzing Bellow's novel as an apocalyptic novel text.

The Actual

A review of this novella by James Wood for The New Republic.

Gregory Benford


In this article, Benford discusses some of the ideas which informed his novel.

Arnold Bennett

Hilda Lessways

An academic article by Sharon Crozier-De Rosa examining the role of the heroine of Bennett's second novel in his Clayhanger series and the figure of the 'New Woman'.

E.F. Benson

Mapp and Lucia

An article by novelist Philip Hensher primarily exploring the nature of characterization in Benson's series.

John Berryman

Homage to Mistress Anne Bradstreet

An essay by Simone Francescato of the University of Padua, presenting a comparitive analysis of this poem and works by Robert Hayden and J.M. Coetzee.

Ambrose Bierce

In the Midst of Life

An essay by Peter Kratzke exploring the relationship between society, justice and the law in this anthology's civil war stories, and Bierce's own attitudes to war.

Elizabeth Bishop

The Gentleman of Shalott

An essay by Kim Howey of University College London analysing this poem and John Ashbery's 'Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror'. Amongst other things it discusses Bishop's usage of imagery and features several close readings.

Pink Dog

In this essay, Catherine Cucinella of California State University looks at the role of the grotesque in Bishop's poem, and its relationship to gender and sexuality. With reference to Bakhtin, Lacan, Kristeva and others.

First Death in Nova Scotia

An essay by Martha Marinara, an Assistant Professor at Armstrong State College, looking primarily at the roles of imagery and gaze in this poem, with reference to the work of Lacan, Foucault, and others.

The Prodigal

In this essay, Frank J. Kearful of the University of Bonn, discusses the function of parody in this poem through a close reading.

bill bissett

Beyond Even Faithful Legends

An essay by Don Precosky on this collection of poems, featuring much analysis.

William Blake

Songs of Innocence and of Experience

An essay by Joseph Byrne of the University of Maryland illustrating how Blake's text shares certain qualities with modern computer and video games.


An academic article by R. Paul Yoder of the University of Arkansas examining Blake's conception of language in general as well as an analysis of Jerusalem. It also contrasts Blake's ideas with Locke's work on language.

Visions of the Daughters of Albion

This essay by Kevin Hutchings of the University of Northern British Columbia takes an in-depth primarily sociohistorical approach to the study of Blake's poem.
An essay by Lisa Crafton of the University of West Georgia investigating the parallels between Blake's poem and the Jephthah story from the Book of Judges.

The Book of Urizen

An essay by Kelly Kelleway applying 'information theory' to a reading of Blake's epic poem, as well as assessing various conceptions of 'chaos'.
A paper by Matthew Green of The University of Nottingham presenting a reading of this work in relation to developments in cognitive science and theories of identity, particularly those relating to Dissociative Identity Disorder.
An essay by Thomas Pfau, an Associate Professor at Duke University, discussing thematic similarities between Blake's book, William Godwin's Caleb Williams, and Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.

The Marriage of Heaven and Hell

In this essay Susan P. Reilly explores Blake's favouring of sound over visuals.

Elizabeth Bowen

The Heat of the Day

An essay by Beryl Pong examining depictions of space and time in this novel and Graham Greene's The Ministry of Fear from within the context of the Blitz.

Malcolm Bradbury

To the Hermitage

An essay by Klaus Stierstorfer of the University of Düsseldorf which analyzes Bradbury's final novel from the perspective of how a tradition of liberal humanism survives in a postmodern environment.

Mary Elizabeth Braddon

Lady Audley's Secret

An academic article by Tara Puri looking closely at Braddon's rendering of Lady Audley's hair, and more broadly the descriptions of external details and their relationship to psychological insight.

Dionne Brand

What We All Long For

A paper by Kit Dobson of the University of Guelph looking at communities through an analysis of this novel's protagonists: Tuyen, Carla, Jackie, and Oku.
An essay by Pavlina Radia of the University of Toronto exploring the representation of Otherness and Transnational Memory in this novel and Salman Rushdie's Fury.

Lily Brett

Too Many Men

A paper by Anna Hunter, of the University of Central Lancashire, looking at the role of cultural memory in relation to the holocaust in this novel and Jonathan Safran Foer's Everything is Illuminated.

Anne Brontë

The Tenant of Wildfell Hall

An essay by Nicole A. Diederich of the University of Findlay exploring marriage in this novel, focusing in particular on the significance of the heroine's remarriage.
An essay by Monika Hope Lee of Brescia University College which asserts that this novel is "a scathing critique of laws and ideologies governing the family, marriage and mothering". The analysis centres on Brontë's depictions of mother figures.
Essay by Sarah Hallenbeck about the character of Gilbert Markham in Brontë's novel.

Charlotte Brontë

Jane Eyre

An academic article by Tracy Lemaster discussing the relationship between Jane's feminist attributes and her maternal instincts, with analysis of several excerpts.
A paper by Nina Pelikan Straus, a Professor of Literature at Purchase College, suggesting how neurobiological-psychoanalytic approaches to metaphor - particularly those of 'fire' and 'gaze' - elicit intense emotional reactions in the reader.
An essay by Kirstin Hanley, an Assistant Professor at SUNY Fredonia, looking at the role of female relationships in Jane's education, with particular reference to the works of Mary Wollstonecraft and analysis of several excerpts.
A chapter from Caught in the Act by Joseph Litvak, a book exploring the theatricality in the nineteenth-century English novel. This chapter looks at Brontë's novel.
An introduction by Joyce Carol Oates originally published as a preface to a 1988 edition of Brontë's novel.
An essay by Emily Allen and Dino Franco Felluga of Purdue University. It primarily looks at the relationship between Victorian Gothic and Opera, using a musical adaptation of Jane Eyre as a focal point.
A paper by Cristina Ceron investigating the role of the Byronic hero in Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights. Ceron looks at the relationship between Jane and Rochester, and how Brontë effectively incorporates Gothic elements into an ostensibly realist narrative.
An essay by Marion Lopez-Burette, an English professor, looking at the topic of rebellion in Brontë's novel and Samuel Richardson's Pamela.
An essay by Ivonne Defant of the University of Trento exploring the theme of the imprisoned and socially-marginalized woman in Brontë's famous novel, and the German writer Eugenie Marlitt's Die zweite Frau.
A scholarly article by Vicky Simpson of the University of New Brunswick investigating the role of storytelling and autobiography in the novel, arguing that Jane implicitly "challenges social institutions by gaining the authoritative position of storyteller".
A comparative analysis of Jane Eyre and Daphne Du Maurier's Rebecca by Marta Miquel-Baldellou of the University of Lleida, outlining the interpretative evolution of the main characters in Brontë's novel.
An essay by Patricia Gott, an Assistant Professor at the University of Wisconsin, discussing female captivity and empowerment in relation to Jane Eyre, as well as Jean Rhys's Wide Sargasso Sea and Daphne Du Maurier's Rebecca.
An essay by Julia Miele Rodas of City University of New York exploring the notion that the protagonist of Brontë's novel is on the autistic spectrum.
In this essay Angie Pazhavila of Seattle University explores the notion of a 'female gothic subtext' in Jane Eyre and Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'The Yellow Wallpaper'.


An essay by Jennifer Judge, York University, which explores Brontë's satiric criticism of mid-Victorian gendered idealogical systems, as well as investigating possible reasons for interpretive confusion of this novel.


A chapter from Caught in the Act by Joseph Litvak, a book exploring the theatricality in the nineteenth-century English novel. This chapter looks at authority and subversion in Brontë's novel, with reference to readings by several prominent theorists.
An essay by Anne Longmuir of Kansas State University which builds on contemporary Victorian accounts of emigrating spinsters for an analysis of the heroine of this novel and her relationship to English national identity.
An academic article by Nicole Bush which explores the role of fashion in this novel and the extent to which its narrator employs her choice of dress in negotiating foreign environments. With references to the work of Sara T. Bernstein and others.
A scholarly article by Diane Long Hoeveler of Marquette University featuring a largely socio-historic analysis of the employment and critique of Gothic tropes in Villette.
Essay by Anna Marutollo of McGill University on the de-construction of the domestic and the re-construction of Empire in Villette and George Eliot's The Mill on the Floss.

Emily Brontë

Wuthering Heights

An article by Joyce Carol Oates originally published in Critical Inquiry. Oates discusses many aspects of the novel but states that it is chiefly 'an assured demonstration of the finite and tragically self-consuming nature of "passion."'
An essay by Yukari Oda, a lecturer at the Fukui University of Technology, exploring the influence of the Gothic on Brontë in her portrayal of the female characters in Wuthering Heights. With analysis of several excerpts.
An essay by Brian Olszewski of Michigan State University analyzing narratorial interplay in Brontë's novel with reference to Reading for the Plot by Peter Brooks.
Essay by Jennifer Beauvais of Montreal University considering various modes of the Gothic and how they are utilized in Wuthering Heights and Charlotte Dacre's Zofloya.
A paper by Cristina Ceron investigating the role of the Byronic hero in Wuthering Heights and Jane Eyre. In particular, Ceron looks at the influence of Byron's Manfred on the relationship between Heathcliff and Catherine.
In this essay Robin DeRosa of Tufts University investigates the presence of Sadomasochism within a study of the principal characters, as well as drawing on Freudian and Lacanian theories for an analysis of Brontë's novel.
In this paper, Susan E. James explores similarities and differences between Emily Brontë's novel and Frances Hodgson Burnett's The Secret Garden.
A substantial article from the Victorian Web looking at 'family systems theory', and addiction, and Wuthering Heights.
An article from the Victorian Web by John P. Farrell, a Professor of English at University of Texas discussing the role of dreams in Brontë's novel.

Robert Browning

Caliban upon Setebos

A paper by Simon Hay of Massey University which addresses Browning's poem as a colonial discourse. Utilizing Homi Bhabha' s theory of colonial mimicry, Hay focuses on Caliban's expressions of his relationship with Prosper.

Mikhail Bulgakov

The Master and Margarita

An academic article by Yanina Arnold looking at the role of the carnivalesque in Bulgakov's novel, with reference to Bakhtin's theories of the sociological role of carnival.
An essay by Radha Balasubramanian of the University of Nebraska which draws on the Hindu system of belief to examine Bulgakov's depiction of otherworldly entities.

Frances Hodgson Burnett

The Secret Garden

A paper by Susan E. James exploring similarities and differences between this novel and Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights.

Frances Burney

The Wanderer

An essay by Tamara Wagner, a Junior Fellow at the National University of Singapore, which views this text as a reaction to the nationalist agenda of many Romantic novels.

Robert Burns

Tam O'Shanter

In this essay Scott Harshbarger, an Associate Professor at Hofstra University, presents a comparative analysis of this poem and Nathaniel Hawthorne's short story 'Young Goodman Brown'.

The Brigs of Ayr

In this essay Jeremy J. Smith provides an in-depth discussion of rhyme.

William S. Burroughs

Naked Lunch

An essay by Fiona Paton, State University of New York, which interprets Burrough's infamous novel from a Gothic perspective, examining its narrative from within the political and sociocultural context of 1950s America.
In this essay Stephen Sheehan explores how the various compositional processes and early critical presences that shaped Naked Lunch problematise a critical approach to the text.
A chapter from Wising Up the Marks: The Amodern William Burroughs by Timothy S. Murphy, exploring the negative dialectics of Naked Lunch. It mainly comprises a comparitive analysis of the book and film.
An essay by Carol Loranger of Wright State University which relates the story of the production of Naked Lunch to its initial reception, assessing differences between various editions of the novel from a mainly textual standpoint.

A.S. Byatt


An essay by Merja Polvinen on Byatt's Booker prize-winning novel. Polvinen sets out to discuss Possession as a realisation of the author's theories on self-conscious realism, discussing many aspects of the book and featuring several close readings.
In this paper Stephen Dondershine discusses the role of colour in Byatt's novel; particularly as a device for conveying symbolic relationships within the narrative.

The Game

An essay by Jane Silvey looking at the influence Angria - the fantasy world of the Brontë sisters - exerted over the protagonists of Byatt's novel.

Angels and Insects

An essay by June Sturrock exploring various aspects of this novel.

A Whistling Woman

An in-depth review of the novel by Lorraine Adams for The New Republic.

George Gordon Byron

Don Juan

An essay by Cynthia Whissel examining structure and development in Byron's epic.
An academic article by Emma Peacocke of Carleton University exploring the evolution of the Byronic hero and the initial reception of Don Juan in England.
An essay by Tracey Colvin of the University of Maryland which considers the physical beauty of the titular character as a type of disability before investigating some of the dramatic, social and political effects of these character attributes.
In this essay L. Michelle Baker of The Catholic University of America provides an analysis of both Don Juan and Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.
An essay by Timothy Feng-shan Tsai featuring an in-depth reading of the poem.

The Corsair

In this essay Tom Mole of McGill University explores the diet of Byron's protagonist and the role of food in this poem.

The Giaour

An essay by Colin Jager, an associate professor at Rutgers University, exploring the role of 'Occidentalism' in Byron's poem with reference to the work of philosopher Akeel Bilgrami and his rehabilitation of 'enchantment'.

The Siege of Corinth

An essay by David Roessel examining Byron's narrative poem and the historical events which may have influenced it, particularly concerning Lord Elgin's removal of the Parthenon marbles; with analysis of extracts from the poem.

Childe Harold's Pilgrimage

An essay by Emily A. Bernhard Jackson of the University of Arkansas investigating this narrative poem from the question of how knowledge is produced - a recurrent theme of Byron's later work (according to the author).
An essay by Ann T. Gardiner of the International University of Germany examining the relationship between Childe Harold's Pilgrimage and Corinne, by Madame de Staël.